Infrequently Noted

Alex Russell on browsers, standards, and the process of progress.

PWA Discovery: You Ain't Seen Nothin Yet

Ada pitched into the conversation about the state of PWAs -- particularly Chrome's heuristics which prompted a Twitter discussion about some of the finer points of the user and developer experience. The background to these conversations is that today, the way users learn that they can install a Progressive Web App is via a prompt browsers decide to show at their discretion. The reason for heuristics is the quality bar that Ada so deftly summarized (and which Remy had an "aha!" moment about recently):

In the case of Chrome it encourages web app developers to build using newer Web Technology such as Service Workers and Web App manifest. It is great because it encourages the building of Web Apps as opposed to native by greatly reducing the barrier to getting your company’s app on the user’s home screen.

Andrew called this a "bag of carrots" and he's not entirely wrong. When I designed the heuristics that Chrome uses to designate something worthy of prompting it was with the user values of reliable performance, ease of recall, and long-term security in mind. Any site can continue to live all its days in a tab; nothing is taken away from that mode. PWAs are about adding new capabilities to existing ones.

The browser's goal is clear: create a hurdle tall enough that only sites that meet user expectations of "appyness" will be prompted for. Maybe Chrome's version of this isn't great! Feedback like Ada's, Andrew's, and Jeremy's is helpful in letting us know how to improve. Thankfully, in most of the cases flagged so far, we've anticipated the concerns but maybe haven't communicated our thinking as well as we should have. This is entirely my fault. This post is my pennance.

Prompting: The First, Worst Guess

The prompting solution to PWA discovery was our first, worst guess at how to communicate to users that they are on a site that can act like an app. Despite the prompt's defects, it bootstrapped what we now think of as "Progressive Web Apps" with Chrome, Samsung Internet, and Opera all implementing versions of it in their Android browsers (note: no browser on iOS supports this as Apple [prevents meaningful competition][13]).

Getting just this much done was an enormous lift. The team had to overcome organisational skepticism that, bluntly, was daunting. Like "when this is all over I'll write a book and it will not be a comedy" daunting. If you think Google is a one big happy family or has "A Plan (TM)" encourage you to apply! They can't fire me for encouraging smart folks to work here, right? Regardless, we pulled it off. But an early first attempt, no matter how difficult, isn't going to be where PWA discovery ends.

Obviously I can't talk about what Chrome will or won't ship -- I have neither the power nor the crystal ball required to make statements like that -- but I can outline a few alternatives to the current "go to, use it for a while, do a jig, pray for the prompt" approach to PWA discovery. I'll also take a moment to cover some of the FAQs about the current design, including Ada's.

Engaged-user Prompting

"Engaged-user prompting" is the current (and in Chrome today, only) way to discover that a site you're on is a Progressive Web App. Remy recently noted why it wasn't a crisis that this doesn't mirror app-store listing: the main action that users need to perform to discover the content is the same thing they do to use the site/service. Progressive Web Apps cut out the App Store middle-man. If you can convince a user to visit your site, you have an opportunity to help them engage with your service. The prompt builds on that engagement and lets users who are engaged choose to keep the experience to the homescreen, where it can then launch in a more immersive mode.

Alone, though, this has major drawbacks.

First, users have been trained for the past decade to look for "apps" in App Stores and might not understand the install prompt. This is part learning-curve and part legitimate concern. To the extent that users encounter these prompts and try them out, we just need to wait for time to pass before the App Store expectation is dampened. To the extent that users and developers truly want App Stores, it's possible in the future. More on that below.

Next, in today's Chrome, there isn't any way other than the prompt for the user to understand that the site they're on is an app. If the user rejects the prompt there isn't much the site can do about it. Yes, there's the "Add To Homescreen" menu item, but it doesn't differentiate between plain-old-websites and PWAs in any visual way (despite using PWA metadata if available...very confusing). As a user, I'd love a visual indicator that let me know if sites I'm on are PWAs that I could keep; this is what "ambient badging" (the next section) is about.

Lastly, as Ada noted, developers aren't in control of the prompting timing. This is intentional. In conversation with developers and users, we came to understand 2 things very clearly:

  1. Users bloody hate the web's cesspool of prompts and interstitials. It got so bad that Search finally had to do something about it, marking sites that prompted users who did nothing other than land on a page not mobile-friendly. It's hard to see how an experience like that is anything-friendly, but I digress.
  2. Web developers do not feel as though they are doing anything wrong -- or worse, feel powerless to prevent their businesses from -- prompting users in ways that create horrible experiences.

The predictable result of this situation is that if a browser allowed users to be prompted to add something to the homescreen whenever the developer wanted, the overall experience of using the web would suffer. This isn't academic: we did this wrong with Geolocation and now we're having to walk it back; through pleading, data, and yes, breaking changes. As a team that cares most about users and a healthy web ecosystem, repeating mistakes like this simply isn't acceptable. The predictable result of designing the API the way Ada and others have suggested would be that we'd have to change it later. That change would likely have been of the form "you can call this API all you want, but the prompt isn't going to show until the user has engaged with your site".

What we went with in the end is simply the same thing, but inverted: by doing all the work to make your thing a Progressive Web App, you've signaled to us that you really do want users to keep this thing to their homescreens. If the timing isn't right, Chrome, Samsung Internet, and Opera let you delay the prompt and show it at a time of your chosing later using onbeforeinstallprompt.

Where the prompt design ended up is exactly where it would have come to rest anyhow; we just short-circuited user pain and spammy experiences.

One final point on prompting: the browser controlling when prompts happen was inevitable, but doing it this way has also allowed us to iterate and experiment. Chrome continues to change the engagement heuristic used to trigger the prompt. In the last year it has fallen from requiring 3 navigations with an hour between 2 of them to only requiring that the user scroll and tap while in a site for a few minutes. All of this is a direct response to developer feedback that they'd like the prompt to trigger more often, which we're balancing with user feedback about when and how often they're prompted. We're also watching the rates at which users accept the prompts. A fall in those rates would signal that we're being too aggressive, but thus far we haven't seen a drop.

The net effect, then, has been that PWAs haven't been introduced to users as a way that they can be spammed or which they (in general) resent. This mirrors how we designed Web Notifications: unlike native apps that frequently take the installation step as carte blanche to spam users with notifications, Web Notifications are always opt-in and easily user-controlled. This sort of careful API design that takes the cumulative experience of users into account is what sets the web apart. Unlike other software ecosystems, the web is not predatory by default and we aim to keep it that way while extending its capabilities further.

Ambient Badging

But enough about what we've done; what's next? Ambient badging!

Wouldn't it be great if there were a button in the URL bar that appeared whenever you landed on a PWA that you could always tap to save it to your homescreen? A button that showed up in the top-level UI only when on a PWA? Something that didn't require digging through menus and guessing about "is this thing going to work well when launched from the homescreen?" Such a button/indicator would let us do things like say to friends, colleagues, and customers "to get the Example app, go to and tap the Frobulate button".

This sort of badging doesn't require any engagement from the user; it's a non-invasive signal that says "hey, this is something you can keep!".

We're actively working on ambient badging in Chrome for Android, but I'm honestly surprised that no other browser has beat us to the punch. When combined with prompting, ambient badging solves (or I hope it will solve) the inability to "verb" PWAs, to have a common visual and conversational vocabulary around "keeping" PWAs, and dealing more elegantly with discoverability for developers who feel frustrated by the prompt's capriciousness.

App Stores

App Stores have been part of my thinking around PWAs long before they were called "PWAs". All of the technology that we use for PWAs -- Manifests, Service Workers, and URLs -- are compatible with any store that wants to list them. This, I think, is a major un-tapped area of exploration and it's not exclusionary to ambient badging or engaged-user prompting. It's possible for a browser or platform to implement one, two, or all of these mechanisms in parallel.

Imagine a future version of a desktop OS you use every day. In our ever-more App Store-mediated desktop OSes, it seems natural to go looking for apps to "keep" there. In this sense, App Stores are search engines for "keepable" experiences. PWAs are exactly that: keepable experiences. The meta-data around listing and installation are all available and no separate bundle or package needs to be made. All the app store in question needs to do is to verify that the person listing the app is actually the owner, that the app meets whatever legal guidelines they enforce, and that the site meets the PWA criteria. Most of this is automatable and all of it is possible with the PWA technology we've deployed already. To the extent that changes are necessary to support it, the Manifest spec is explicitly designed to be extensible.

App Stores are another area where I'm surprised that we haven't seen more non-Chrome innovation. Can't wait to see what happens there next. PWAs are great fit for these "keepable experience" search engines.


If PWAs are by-design App Store-compatible -- assuming those stores want to allow them to be listed and "kept" and aren't just pursuing proprietary visions where businesses pay exhorbitantly to re-develop for each platform and form-factor -- then Search engines are the proto-App Store.

It's possible to imagine supporting specially highlighted & badged links that can be opened stand-alone by default if the resulting URL is a PWA...say a separate "open standalone" link next to a result. It's also possible to imagine separate "keep and visit" buttons in search results for URLs that are part of PWAs. Again, this future has been part of my thinking around distribution for PWAs for a long, long time, but it has only relatively recently become possible for crawlers to detect and enforce the quality bar that PWAs set.

Obviously, I have no inside information about what Bing's engineers think the future should look like, but if it seems natural for search engines to list Native Apps (which they do today), then this also seems mighty reasonable.

The Limits of "Keep" Are PWAs Strength

We've got pretty strong data from native app ecosystems that users don't use many apps, uninstall heavily, and in general find installation frustrating and taxing.

What's important about PWAs, then, is that they are OG "streamable apps". Most users won't install most PWAs most of the time, and that's fine. Hoping for more is how the tech industry found itself over-funding a gold rush only to reap the predictable consequences. The notion that native apps are "better" has largely been a self-reenforcing mantra borne of a Silicon Valley monoculture wherein the needs of billions are simply presumed (without investigation) to be the same as the behaviors of VC's kids, nephews/nieces, and close associates.

It's maddening. It's idiotic. But it's also why the web has a shot. Bubbles burst and the web will finally be ready to pick up the slack when this one does.


Not The Post I Wanted To Be Writing...

I was on holiday after I/O last week when Jeremy wrote up some of his thoughts on the current state of PWA UI treatment for URL access. We chatted on Twitter (apologies to Frances) and he followed up here.

A few things seem obscured by the debate so far:

That last point is the high-order bit for me. Like Jeremy, I'm agitated over the lack of access to URLs for PWAs launched in a more immersive mode. That seems to be the thing to be frustrated about if you care about URLs and sharing and it's my concern too -- so much so that our team prioritized fixing it this quarter. New UI and gestures are hard to get right which is why I'm excited that Owen and Rebecca have been looking into how to make URLs accessible to PWA users no matter what display mode they're in. We'll have more to show on this front soon.

This matters because URL sharing is the proto-social behavior. It's what enabled the web to spread and prosper, and it's something we take for granted. In fact, if you look at any of my talks, you'll see that I call it out as the web's superpower.

We're going to do something about this imminently because web developers who are building PWAs tend to forget about sharing. It's been painful in our audits of partner apps to have to remind them to "build a share button" and then make sure it's available on-screen in the right modes. It sucks to implement and it's harder to use than a ubiquitous UI contract. At the same time, successful PWA developers are striving for UI consistency with the native platform their apps run on. They want their Web cake and the want to eat it like an App. The onus, then, is clearly on the browser to bring URL access back in ways that developers can't defeat and can't forget.

Which brings us to a final point that seems to have been lost: browsers can fix the real issue -- sharing of PWAs and access to URLs -- without anyone changing anything about their apps, and can do it out-of-band. Obviously, this is only true for browsers that support PWAs and have fast update cycles which, today, is all PWA-supporting browsers; namely Chrome, Opera, and Samsung Internet. The folks who work on these browsers -- including myself -- care as much as Jeremy does about the health and future of the web. I'm grateful to him for highlighting this issue and hope we can work together in the future to figure out ways to keep the best bits of the web healthy as PWAs become a common way to get back to sites users love.

Service Workers and PWAs: It's About Reliable Performance, Not "Offline"

A lot of smart folks keep asking me why AppCache isn't a good enough solution for "offline" and why it was necessary to invent Service Workers. It's a great question!

Motivated by the regrettably uneven browser support landscape for Service Workers, there's a real incentive to "just make something work offline" on iOS or old-IE. This phrasing obscures the primary experience difference between native apps and web content: native apps always "boot" when you tap on them. The legacy web, however, can take as long as the TCP timeout (2 minutes in many devices) to end in failure. That's a looooong time to be looking at a white screen.

But doesn't AppCache let you cache documents you might want offline? Sort of. Kinda. Ish. Turns out this only works in trivial cases. The issue is that the AppCache design only allows you to do "routing" using the FALLBACK section, and to trigger the FALLBACK URL (which can boot up, inspect it's environment, and do something custom) the request needs to have actually failed. To handle the general case -- a site with an unbounded set of URLs -- that means users are waiting on a flaky, slow network for minutes (if they're patient) before the the router page starts, which might then forward them on to content or a custom offline experience.

"But wait!", you say, "doesn't AppCache also allow you to put documents in the cache directly, bypassing all of that?". Yes, it does, but because of AppCache's atomic update system and practical limits to storage space, this means that the set of URLs in this list needs to be low and change infrequently. You see this play out, for example, in the AppCache manifests that major Google services like Google Docs generate. These services wind up with major complexity related to creating manifests on a per-user basis and managing the entries in them. Those entries are carefully curated from amongst the entire set of possible URLs to ensure high performance for the entries users are likely to visit offline, but this still leaves everything else at the mercy of network flakiness.

It's hard to stress enough how much better reliable performance is. Think of it this way: the first load of a native app sucks. It's gated by an app store and a huge download, but once you get to a point where the app is installed, that up-front cost is amortized across all app starts and none of those starts have a variable delay. Each application start is as fast as the last, no variance. What native apps deliver is reliable performance.

Until Service Workers arrived, it simply wasn't possible to achieve this and that's why I designed Chrome's Add-to-Homescreen prompting behavior to require a Service Worker that responds quickly for the URL listed in the Manifest's start_url. The heuristic is designed to only promote experiences that are "app-like"; recognizing that a key differentiator between the "old web" and native apps is reliable performance.

Remy Sharp blogged about the experience and expectation differences that we've worked hard to bake into Progressive Web Apps. Reliable performance is the most important of these and the reason Progressive Web Apps require Service Workers. It isn't that "offline" support doesn't matter -- it does -- but apps that work well offline are a subset of things that are apps, experiences you can trust to start any time, anywhere, on any connection.

I'll be speaking more about this at Google I/O in a few weeks, and I'm hugely excited about the ways that the web is going to get better this year; starting with experiences that always work.

EWS Melbourne

What follows is roughly the text of a talk I gave last week at the Extensible Web Summit in Melbourne.

The Point of Extensibility

Mark, apparently, "volunteered" me to give a lightning talk last night over a dinner that I wasn't at, so apologies in advance if I run short or long.

Something that comes up frequently in our work on the TAG is the relationship between extensibility as a principle and how it relates to specific features we want in the web platform. To get anywhere in these debates, I think it's worth zooming out a bit.

The web has a strange origin story: we didn't build our way up from assembler and C, and the notion of moving words around memory is so far from the level of abstraction that HTML, JavaScript, and CSS provide that you can barely see them from there. Even VBScript, perhaps the most relevant contemporary, had a story for how that layering worked. The web, for decades, managed to do without.

Extensibility, then, has been an effective tool in the modern era for trying to understand the hidden linkages between the strange fauna and flora of this alien world. We can almost always get somewhere by asking dumb questions like "so, how does this thing relate to that other thing over there?". We nearly always turn up some missing primitive that we can catalog and reuse on our shared exploration.

But I'd submit that Extensibility is a tool in the same sense as Standards: it's possible to drive yourself mad with them if you lose track of the goal. Despite our setting today, this isn't academic. We're doing it all for a reason, and that reason needs to be a goal we share.

I can't set goals for you, but I can tell you what mine are and ask you to join me in them. My specific goal, then, is to improve the rate of progress on the web for the benefit of users and developers, in that order.

Put another way, I want to ensure the web is the platform developers invest in first and most, and that they do so because it's the easiest, best way to deliver great experiences.

With that in mind, it's easier to be kind to proposals that come to the TAG for high-level features, particularly if they're forging new ground or opening up new fundamental capabilities that the web didn't have but that will enrich user's experiences by improving developer's options.

Extensibility and Standards are incredibly useful tools but they make crummy religions.

There will be new features that aren't extensible by default. That's OK. Not ideal, but OK and, sometimes, unavoidable. What is avoidable is leaving the web's features sealed shut, never asking the questions about how things relate; never connecting the dots.

That would be a damned shame. I'm grateful the TAG has joined some of us insurrectionists in asking these questions, but we've got a long way to go. And my hope as we go there together is that we don't mistake the means for the goals.


Doing Science On The Web

Cross-posted at Medium

This post is about vendor prefixes, why they didn’t work, and why it's toxic not to be able to launch experimental features. Also, what to do about it.

Vendor prefixes are a very sore topic, and one where I’ve disagreed with the overwhelming consensus. In the heat of the ‘11–12 debate ("prefixpocalypse") I tried to outline a hierarchy of the web platform needs:

  1. Meeting developer & user experience needs with new features
  2. Eventual interoperability for successful features
  3. Minimizing harm to the ecosystem from experiments-gone-wrong

The debate and subsequent (conflicting) prohibitions & advice centered on the third point: minimizing pollution.

Recall that in 2012, Google, Apple, Blackberry, and a host of other vendors were all shipping browsers based on a single CSS engine (WebKit) without changing the -webkit- prefixes to be vendor-specific; e.g. -cr-, -apple-, or -bb-. As a result many experimental features experienced premature compatibility.Developers could get the benefits of broad feature support without a corresponding standard. This backed non-WebKit-based browsers into a terrible choice: "camp" on the other vendor’s prefixed behavior to render content correctly or suffer a loss of user and developer loyalty.

This illustrates what happens when experiments inadvertently become critical infrastructure. It has happened before. Over, and over, and over again.

Prefixes were supposed to allow experimentation while discouraging misuse, but in practice they don’t. Prefixes "look" ugly and the thought was that ugliness  —  combined with an aversion to proprietary gunk by web developers —  would cause sites to cease using them once standards are in place and browsers implement. But that’s not what happens.

Useful features that live a long time in the "experimental" phase tend to get “burned in”, particularly if the browsers supporting them are widely used. Breaking existing content is the third rail for browsers; all of their product instincts and incentives keep them from doing it, even if the breakage comes from retracting proprietary features. This means that many prefixed properties continue to work long after standard versions are added. Likewise, sites and pages that work with prefixes are all-too-easy for web developers to write and abandon. It’s unsettling to remove a prefix when you might break a user with an old browser. Maintenance of both sites and browsers rarely subtracts, but the theory of prefixes hinges on subtraction.

Everyone who uses prefixes, both browser engineers and web developers, start down the path thinking they’ll stop at some point. But for predictable reasons, that isn’t what happens. Good intentions are not an effective prophylactic. Not for web developers or browser makers (to say nothing of amorous teens).

This situation is the natural consequence of platform and developer time-scales that are out of sync. Browsers move more slowly than sites (at the micro scale), but sites must contend with huge browser diversity and are therefore much more conservative about removing "working" code than browser engineers expected.

Now What?

Years after Prefixpocalypse, everyone who works on a browser understands that prefixes haven’t succeeded in minimizing harm, yet vendors proudly announce new prefixed features and developers blithely (ab)use them. Clearly, a need for new features trumps interoperability and pollution concerns. This is natural and, perhaps even healthy. A static web, one which doesn’t do more to make lives better is one that doesn’t deserve to thrive and grow. In technology as in life there is no stasis, only various speeds of growth or decay.

Browsers could stop prefix pollution by simply vowing not to add features. This neatly analyses the problem (some experiments don’t work out, and some get out of hand) and proposes a solution (no experimentation), but as H.L. Mencken famously wrote:

…there is always a well-known solution to every human problem — neat, plausible, and wrong.

We have already run a natural experiment in this area. At the low point after the first browser war, Microsoft (temporarily) shrink from the challenge of building the web into a platform. Meanwhile IE 6’s momentum assured its place as the boat-anchor-browser. Between 2002 and 2006, the web (roughly) didn’t add any new features. Was that better? Not hardly. I’m glad to be done with 9-table-cell image hacks to accomplish rounded corners. Not all change is progress, but without change there is no progress.

Or, put better by W3C Memes:

image alt text

"One does not simply ship no new features for a year and remain competitive"

The web does need new features, and we’d like good versions of them — fewer document.alls, WebSQLs and AppCaches, thanks.

We know from experience developing software of all kinds that more iteration yields better results. Experimentation, chances to learn, and opportunities to try alternatives are what separate good ideas from great products. Members of the Google Gears team report they considered building something like Service Workers. Instead they built an AppCache style system which didn’t work in all the ways AppCache didn’t work (which they couldn’t have known at the time). It shouldn’t have taken 6+ years to course-correct. We need to be able to experiment and iterate. Now that we understand the problems with prefixes, we need another mechanism.

Experiments That Stay Experiments

Prefixpocalypse happened because experiments escaped the lab. Wide-scale use of experimental properties isn’t healthy. Because prefixed properties were available to any site (no matter how large), it was straightforward for the killer combination of broad browser support and major site usage to ensure that compatibility would work against ever ending the experiment. The key to doing better, then, is to limit the size of the experimental population.

The way prefixes were run was like making a new drug available over the counter as soon as a promising early trial was conducted, skipping animal, human, and large-scale clinical trials. Of course that would be ludicrous; "first do no harm" requires starting with a small population, showing efficacy, gathering data about side-effects, and iterating.

The missing ingredient has been the ability to limit the experimental population. Experiments can run for fixed duration without fear of breaking the web if we can be sure that they never imperiled the whole web in the first place. Short duration and small, committed test populations allow for more iteration which should, in the end, lead to better features. Web developer feedback needs to be the most important voice in the standards process, and we’ll never get there until there’s more ability for web developers to participate in feature evolution.

Experimental outcomes are ammo for the standards development process; in the best-case they can provide good evidence that a feature is both needed and well-designed.

Putting evidence at the core of web feature and standards development is a 180° change from the current M.O., but one we sorely need.

So how do we get there?

Some mechanisms I’ve thought through and rejected (with reasons):

The Chrome Team has been thinking about this problem for the past several years, including conversations with other vendors, and those ideas have congealed into a few interlocking mechanisms that haven’t been rejected:

  1. Developer registration & usage keys. A large part of the reason it’s difficult to change developer behavior about use of experimental features is that it’s hard to find them! Who would you call to talk about use of some prefixed CSS thing on I don’t know either. Having an open communication channel is critical to learning how features are working (or not) in the real world. To that end, new experimental features will be tied to specific origins using keys vended by a developer program; sites supply the keys to the browser through header/meta tags, enabling the features dynamically. Registration for the program will probably require giving a (valid) email address and agreeing to answer survey questions about experimental features. Because of auto-self-destruct (see below), there’s less worry that these experiments will be abused to provide proprietary features to "preferred" origins. Public dashboards of running experiments and users will ensure transparency to this effect.
  2. Global usage caps. The Blink project generally uses a ~0.03% usage threshold to decide if it’s plausible to remove a feature. Experimenters might use our Use Counter infrastructure and RAPPOR to monitor use. Any feature that breaches this threshold can automatically close the experiment to new users and, if any individual user goes above ~0.01% (global) use, a config update can be pushed to throttle use on that site.
  3. Feature auto-self-destruct. Experimental features should be backed by a process that’s trying to learn. To enable this, we’re going to ensure that each version of an experimental feature auto-self-destructs, tentatively set at 12–18 weeks per experiment. New iterations which are designed to test some theory can be launched once an experiment has finished (but must have some API or semantic difference, preferably breaking). Sites that want to opt into the next experiment and were part of a previous group will be asked survey questions in the key-update process (which is probably going to be a requirement for access to future experimental versions). Experiments can overlap to provide continuity for end-users who are willing to move to the next-best-guess and provide feedback.

We’re also going to work to ensure that the surfaced APIs are done in a responsible way, including feature-detection where possible. These properties add up to a solution that gives us confidence that we can create Ctrl-Z for web features without damaging users or sites.

In discussions with our friends in the community and at other browser vendors we’ve thought through alternative ways to throttle or shrink the experimental population: randomness in API names, limiting APIs to postMessage style calling, or shortening experiment lifetimes. As Chrome is going first, we’ll be iterating on the experimental framework to try to strike the right balance that allows enough use to learn from but not so much that we inadvertently commit to an API. We'll also be sharing what we learn.

My hope is that other browsers implement similar programs and, as a corollary, cease use of prefixes. If they do, I can imagine many future areas for collaboration on developing and running these experiments. That said, it’s desirable to for different browsers to be trying different designs; we learn more through diversity than premature monoculture.

Moving faster and building better features don’t have to be in tension; we can do better. It’s time to try.

Thanks to Owen Campbell-Moore, Joe Medley, Jeff Yasskin, Adrian Bateman, Jake Archibald, Ian Clelland, Michael Stillwell, Addy Osmani, and Chris Wilson, and Paul Irish for their invaluable feedback on drafts of this post.

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