Infrequently Noted

Alex Russell on browsers, standards, and the process of progress.

Minimum Standards for iOS Browser Competition

There has been a recent flurry of regulatory, legislative, and courtroom activity regarding mobile OSes and their app stores. One emergent theme is Apple's shocking disregard for the spirit of legal findings it views as adverse to its interests.

Take, for instance, Apple's insistence that it would take "months" to support the addition of links to external payment providers from within apps, nevermind it had months of notice. There is a case to be made that formulating policy and constructing a comissions system takes time, but this is ridiculous.

Just sit with Apple's claim a moment. Cupertino is saying that it will take additional months to allow other people to add links within their own apps.

Or consider South Korea's law, passed last August, that elicited months of stonewalling by Google and Apple until, at last, an exasperated KCC started speaking a language Cupertino understands: fines. Having run the clock for half a year, Apple has started making noises that indicate a willingness to potentially allow alternative payment systems at some point in the future.

Never fear, though; there's no chance that grudging "compliance" will abide the plain-language meaning of the law. Apple is fully committed to predatory delay and sneering, legalistic, inch-measuring conformance. Notably, it signaled it feels entitled to skim equivalent revenues to it's monopoly rents for payments paid through third-party processors in both Korea and the Netherlands. If regulators are going to bring this to heel, they will need to start assuming bad-faith.

Dutch regulators have been engaged in a narrowly-focused enquiry into the billing practices of dating apps, and they came to remarkably similar conclusions: Apple's pracctices are flagarantly anti-competitive.

In a malign sort of consistency, Apple responded in the most obtuse, geographically constrained, and difficult-to-use solution possible. Developers would need to submit a separate, country-specific version of their app, only available from the Dutch version of the App Store, and present users with pejorative messaging. Heaven help users attempting to navigate such a mess.

This "solution" was poorly received. Perhaps learning from the KCC's experience, Dutch regulators moved to impose fines more quickly, but perhaps misjudged how little 50 million EUR is to a firm that makes 600× as much in profit per quarter. It certainly hasn't modulated Apple's duplicitous audacity.

Cupertino's latest proposed alternative to its 30% revenue cut will charge developers that use external payment processors a 27% fee which, after the usual 3% credit card processing fee... well, you can do the math.

Regulators in the low countries are rightly incensed, but Apple's disrespect for the rule of law isn't going to be reformed by slowly deployed half-measures, one vertical at a time. Structural change is necessary, and the web could bring that change if it is unshackled from Apple's slipshod browser engine.

A Floor for Functional Browser Choice

With all of this as context, we should seriously consider how companies this shameless will behave if required to facilitate genuine browser choice. What are the policy and technical requirements regulators should set to ensure fairness? How can the lines be drawn so delay and obfuscation aren't used to scuttle capable competitors? How can regulators anticipate and get ahead of brazenly bad-faith actions, not only by Apple, but Google and Facebook as well?

Geographic Games

One oligopolist response has been to change anti-competitive behaviour only within small markets, e.g. making changes only to the "dating" category of apps and only within the Netherlands. Apple and Google calculate that they can avoid the Brussels Effect by making a patchwork set of market-specific changes. A goal of this strategy is to confuse users and make life hard for rebellious developers by tightly drawing "fixes" around the letter of the law in each jurisdiction.

While technically meeting legal requirements, these systems will be so hard to use that residents and businesses blame regulators, rather than store proprietors for additional day-to-day inconvenience. Because they're implemented in software, this market well-poisoning is cost-free for Apple. It also buys bad-faith actors months of delay on substantive change while they negotiate with regulators.

Could regulators include language that stipulates how market fairness requirements cannot be met with country-specific versions of apps or capabilities? This quickly hits jurisdictional boundaries, likely triggering years of court appeals. This is undesirable as delay is the ne'er do well's friend.

Regulators generally have scope over commerce within their territorial borders. Multilateral treaty organisations like the the WTO have supranational jurisdiction but no appetite or the treaty scope to tackle firm-level competition issues. They focus instead on tariffs and "dumping" practices that privilege one nation's industries over another, as those are the sorts of disputes national laws cannot address.

A More Durable Approach

Effective regulation needs market-opening technologies that function without constant oversight. The lines drawn around undermining this technology should be so clear, and the consequences for stepping over them so painful, that even Apple, Google, and Facebook dare not go near them.

When regulators adopt similar (if not identical) regulations they increase the costs to bad actors of country-specific gamesmanship. Regulators that "harmonise" their interventions multiply the chances of compliance, creating a "Brussels of the Willing".

A competitive landscape for web browsers should be part of any compliance framework because:

For the web to perform these essential market functions on mobile, regulation must disrupt the status quo and facilitate competition from within. This also provides a solution to user safety and security concerns that pervasive sideloading may raise, as browsers are aggressively sandboxed. Meanginful choice, coupled with powerful browsers, can deliver better outcomes:

Table Stakes

Discussion of sideloading and alternative app stores often elides requirements that regulators should put in place to create competition amongst capable browsers. I have previously proposed a set of minimal interventions to ensure meaningful user choice. To restate the broadest points:

iOS Specifics

Because Apple's iOS is egregiously closed to genuine browser competition, regulators should pay specific attention to the capabilities that vendors that port engines will need. They should also ensure other capabilities are made available by default; the presumption for browser developers must be open access. Apple has shown itself to be a serial bad-faith actor regarding competition and browser choice, so while an enumeration of these features may seem pedantic, it sadly also seems necessary.

Today, Apple's Safari browser enjoys privileged access to certain APIs necessary for any competing browser vendor that wants to match Safari's features. Only Safari can:

As a general rule, competing browsers must also be allowed access to all private and undocumented APIs that are used by Safari, as well as iOS entitlements granted to other applications.

Regulators must also ensure capabilities are not prohibited or removed from browsers by secret agreements that Cupertino forces developers to sign. Further (and it's a shame this has to be said), Apple must not be allowed to comply with these terms by further neutering Safari's already industry-trailing feature set.

Apple must also be required to allow browsers with alternative engines to be procured directly through its App Store. It is easy to predict a world of country-specific sideloading regulations, with Apple attempting to blunt the impact of competitive browsers by continuing to banish them from their "legit" discovery surface.

Web browsers must also be allowed to implement the Web Payments API without being forced to use Apple Pay as the only back end. Apple must further be enjoined from requiring specific UI treatments that subvert these flows and prejudice users away from open payment systems.

Lastly, Apple must not be allowed to publish new versions of browsers through an arbitrary and capricious "review" process. Regulators must demand that Apple be forced to publish new browser versions and, if it objects to features within them, file a request for regulatory arbitration of the dispute post publication. Apple has long demonstrated it cannot be trusted with the benefit of the doubt in this area, and allowing updates to flow quickly is critical to ensuring users of the web remain safe.

Only within the contours of this sort of regime can ongoing enforcement of negotiated policy proceed in good faith.

A Week to Define the Web for Decades

If you live or do business in the UK or the US, what you do in the next seven days could define the web for decades to come. By filing public comments with UK regulators and US legislators this week, you can change the course of mobile computing more than at any other time in the past decade. Read on for why this moment matters and how to seize the day.

By way of background, regulators in much of the anglophone world (and beyond) spent much of 2021 investigating the state of the mobile ecosystem.

This is important because Apple has succeeded in neutering the web's potential through brazenly anti-competitive practices and obfuscation. Facebook and Google, meanwhile, have undermined user agency in browser choice for fun and profit.

I kid.

It was all for profit:

Public statements from leading authorities who have looked into this behaviour leave a distinct impression of being unimpressed. Here's the unflappably measured UK Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) weighing in last month:

Apple and Google have developed a vice-like grip over how we use mobile phones and we're concerned that it's causing millions of people across the UK to lose out.

The CMA's 400+ page interim report (plus an additional ~200 pages of detailed appendices) didn't make the waves it deserved when it was released near the winter holidays.[1] That's a shame as the report is by turns scathing and detailed, particularly in its proposed remedies, all of which would have a profoundly positive impact on you, me, and anyone else who uses the mobile web:

The report sets out a range of actions that could be taken to address these issues, including:

  • Making it easier for users to switch between iOS and Android phones when they want to replace their device without losing functionality or data.
  • Making it easier to install apps through methods other than the App Store or Play Store, including so-called "web apps".
  • Enabling all apps to give users a choice of how they pay in-app for things like game credits or subscriptions, rather than being tied to Apple's and Google's payment systems.
  • Making it easier for users to choose alternatives to Apple and Google for services like browsers, in particular by making sure they can easily set which browser they have as default.

This is shockingly blunt language from a regulatory body:

Our market study has provisionally found that:

❌ People aren’t seeing the full benefit of innovative new products and services such as cloud #gaming and web #apps.

[2/5]

Our provisional findings also suggest:

💷 customers could be facing higher prices than they would in a more competitive market.

[3/5]

The report demonstrates that the CMA understands the anti-competitive browser and browser-engine landscape too. Its findings are no less direct than the summary:

Impact of the WebKit restriction

As a result of the WebKit restriction, there is no competition in browser engines on iOS and Apple effectively dictates the features that browsers on iOS can offer[.]

The CMA has outlined its next steps and is requesting comment until February 7th, 2022.

Apple, in particular, has demonstrated that it is a bad actor with regards to competition law. This post could easily contain nothing but a rundown of fruity skulduggery; that's how brazen Cupertino's anti-competitive practices have become. Suffice to say, Apple sees being fined 5M EUR per week over entirely reasonable requests a "cost of doing business." Big respect-for-the-rule-of-law vibes.

But this sort of thing isn't going to last. Regulators don't like being taken for a ride.

...Meanwhile in Washington

On this side of the pond, things are getting serious. In just the past two weeks:

We're even getting gauzy coverage of pro-regulatory senators. It's quite the moment, and indicates dawning awareness of these blatantly anti-competitive practices.

This Is About More Than Browsers

It's tempting to think of browser choice and app store regulation as wholly separate concerns, but neither the web nor apps exist in a vacuum. As the desktop web becomes ever-more powerful on every OS, even the most sophisticated app developers gain more choice in how they reach users.

Unleashing true choice and competition in mobile browsers won't only help web developers and users, it will level the playing field more broadly. Native app developers that feel trapped in abusive policy regimes will suddenly have real alternatives. This, in turn, will put pricing pressure on app store owners that extract egregious rents today.

Web apps and PWAs compete with app stores for distribution, lowering the price to develop and deliver competitive experiences. This allows a larger pool of developers and businesses to "play".

App store "review" and its capricious policy interpretations have always been tragicomic, but true competition is needed to drive the point home. Businesses are forced into the app store, requiring they spend huge amounts to re-build features multiple times. Users risk unsafe native app platforms when the much-safer web could easily handle many day-to-day tasks. We're only stuck in this morass because it helps Google and Apple build proprietary moats that raise switching costs and allow them to extort rents from indie developers and hapless users.

A better future for mobile computing is possible when the web is unshackled, and that will only happen when competition has teeth.

What You Can Do

This is the last week to lodge comment by email with the UK's CMA regarding the findings of its interim report. Anyone who does business in the UK and cares about mobile browser choice should send comments, both as an individual and through corporate counsel.

For US residents, the speed at which legislation on this front is moving through Congress suggests that this is the moment for a well-timed email or, more preferably, call to your elected senator.

If you live or do business in the US or the UK, this week matters.

Whichever geography you submit comment to, please note that regulators and legislators have specific remits and will care more or less depending on the salience of your input to their particular goals. To maximize your impact, consider including the following points in your comments:

Leaving your contact information for follow-up and verification never hurts either.

It's been 761 weeks since Apple began the destruction of mobile browser choice, knowingly coating its preference for a "native" device experience (in web-friendly garb) at the expense of the mobile web. This is the week you can do something about it.

Carpe diem.


  1. While the tech press may have been asleep at the wheel, Bruce Lawson covered the report's release. Read his post for a better sense of the content without needing to wade through 600+ pages. ↩︎

Washed Up

The term 'web3' is an attempted whitewash, and it isn't working
Photo by Jarrod Reed

The rhetorical "web3" land-grab by various VCs, their shills, and folks genuinely confused about legal jurisdiction may appear to be a done deal.

VCs planted the flag with sufficient force and cash (of dubious origin) to cause even sceptical outlets to report on it as though "web3" is a real thing.

Which it is not — at least not in any useful sense:

Thank god someone finally solved the problem of not being able to pay money to pretend you own a jpg

Technologies marketed under the "web3" umbrella are generally not fit for purpose, unless that purpose is to mislead:

Out of curiosity I dug into how NFT's actually reference the media you're "buying" and my eyebrows are now orbiting the moon

Short version:

The NFT token you bought either points to a URL on the internet, or an IPFS hash. In most circumstances it references an IPFS gateway on the internet run by the startup you bought the NFT from.

Oh, and that URL is not the media. That URL is a JSON metadata file

Here's an example. This artwork is by Beeple and sold via Nifty:

niftygateway.com/itemdetail/primary/0x12f28e2106ce8fd8464885b80ea865e98b465149/1

The NFT token is for this JSON file hosted directly on Nifty's servers:

api.niftygateway.com/beeple/100010001/

Image from Tweet

THAT file refers to the actual media you just "bought". Which in this case is hosted via a @cloudinary CDN, served by Nifty's servers again.

So if Nifty goes bust, your token is now worthless. It refers to nothing. This can't be changed.

"But you said some use IPFS!"

Let's look at the $65m Beeple, sold by Christies. Fancy.

onlineonly.christies.com/s/beeple-first-5000-days/beeple-b-1981-1/112924

That NFT token refers directly to an IPFS hash (ipfs.io). We can take that IPFS hash and fetch the JSON metadata using a public gateway:

ipfs.io/ipfs/QmPAg1mjxcEQPPtqsLoEcauVedaeMH81WXDPvPx3VC5zUz

Image from Tweet

So, well done for referring to IPFS - it references the specific file rather than a URL that might break!

...however the metadata links to "ipfsgateway.makersplace.com/ipfs/QmXkxpwAHCtDXbbZHUwqtFucG1RMS6T87vi1CdvadfL7qA"

This is an IPFS gateway run by makersplace.com, the NFT-minting startup.

Who will go bust one day

It's all going about as well as one might expect.

What has perhaps earned proponents of JSON-files-that-point-to-JPGs less scorn, however, are attempts to affiliate their technologies with the web when, in fact, the two are technically unrelated by design. The politics of blockchain proponents have led them to explicitly reject the foundational protocols and technical underpinnings of the web. "web3" tech can't be an evolution of the web because it was designed to stand apart.

What is the web proper?

Cribbing from Dieter Bohn's definition, the web is the set of HTML documents (and subresources they reference) currently reachable via links.

To be on the web is to be linked to and linked from — very literally, connected by edges in a great graph. And the core of that connection? DNS, the "Domain Name System" that allows servers running at opaque and forgettable IP addresses to be found at friendlier names, like infrequently.org.

DNS underpins URLs. URLs and links make the web possible. Without these indirections, the web would never have escaped the lab.

These systems matter because the web is for humans, and humans have feeble wetware that doesn't operate naturally on long strings of semi-random numbers and characters. This matters to claims of decentralisation because, underneath DNS, the systems that delivered this very page you're reading to your screen are, in fact, distributed and decentralised.

Naming is centralising.

"web3" partisans often cast a return to nameless, unmemorable addresses as a revolution when their systems rely on either the same centralising mechanisms or seek to re-create them under new (less transparent, equally rent-seeking) management. As a technical matter, browsers are capable of implementing content-addressed networking, thanks to Web Packages, without doing violence to the web's gaurantees of safety in the process. Still, it turns out demand for services of this sort hasn't been great, in part, because of legitimate privacy concerns.

"web3" proponents variously dismiss and (sometimes) claim to solve privacy concerns, but the technical reality is less hospitable: content-addressed data must be either fully public or rely on obscurity.

Accessing "web3"-hosted files is less private because the architecture of decentralisation choosen by "web3" systems eschews mechanisms that build trust in the transport layer. A fully public, immutable ledger of content, offered by servers you don't control and can't attribute or verify, over links you can't trust, is hardly a recipe for privacy. One could imagine blockchain-based solutions to some of these problems, but this isn't the focus of "web3" boosters today.

Without DNS-backed systems like TLS there's little guarantee that content consumption will prevent tracking by parties even more unknowable than in the "web 2.0" mess that "web3" advocates decry.

Hanlon's Razor demands we treat these errors and omissions as sincere, if misguided.

What's less excusable is an appropriation of the term "web" concerning (but not limited to):

Despite forceful assertions that these systems represent the next evolution of "the web", they technically have no connection to it.

This takes doing! The web is vastly capable, and browsers today are in the business of providing access to nearly every significant subsystem of modern commodity computers. If "web3" were truly an evolution of the web, surely there would be some technical linkage... and yet.

Having rejected the foundational protocols of the web, these systems sail a parallel plane, connecting only over "bridges" and "gateways" which, in turn, give those who run the gateways incredible centralised power.

Browsers aren't going to engineer this stuff into the web's liberally licensed core because the cryptocurrency community hasn't done the necessary licensing work. Intricate toil is required to make concrete proposals that might close these gaps and demonstrate competent governance, and some of it is possible. But the community waving the red shirt of "web3" isn't showing up and isn't doing that work.

What this amounts to, then, is web-washing.

The term "web3" is a transparent attempt to associate technologies diametrically opposed to the web with its success; an effort to launder the reputation of systems that have most effectively served as vehicles for money laundering, fraud, and the acceleration of ransomware using the good name of a system that I help maintain.

Perhaps this play to appropriate the value of the web is what it smells like: a desperate move by bag-holders to lure in a new tranche of suckers, allowing them to clear speculative positions. Or perhaps it's honest confusion. Technically speaking, whatever it is, it isn't the web or any iteration of it.

The worst versions of this stuff use profligate, world-burning designs that represent a threat to the species. There's work happening in some communities to address those challenges, and that's good (if overdue). Even so, if every technology jockeying for a spot under the "web3" banner evolves beyond proof-of-work blockchains, these systems will still not be part of the web because they were designed not to be.

That could change. Durable links could be forged, but I see little work in that direction today. For instance, systems like IPFS could be made to host Web Packages which would (at least for public content) create a web-centric reason to integrate the protocol into browsers. Until that sort of work is done, folks using the "web3" coinage unironically are either grifters or dupes. Have pity, but don't let this nonsense slide.

"web3" ain't the web, and the VCs talking their own book don't get the last word, no matter how much dirty money they throw at it.

iOS Engine Choice In Depth

Update (September 25th, 2021): Commenters appear confused about Apple's many options to ensure safety in a world of true browser competition, JITs and all. This post has been expanded to more clearly enunciate a few of these alternatives.

Update (April 29th, 2022): Since this post was first published, Google's Project Zero released an overview regarding browser security trends. This post has been updated to capture their finding that iOS and Safari continues to lag the industry in delivering fixes to issues that Project Zero finds.


Recent posts here covering the slow pace of WebKit development and ways the mobile browser market has evolved to disrespect user choice have sparked conversations with friends and colleagues. Many discussions have focused on Apple's rationales, explicit and implied, in keeping the iOS versions of Edge, Firefox, Opera, and Chrome less capable and compatible than they are on every other platform.

How does Apple justify such a policy? Particularly since last winter, when it finally (ham-fistedly, eventually) became possible to set a browser other than Safari as the default?

Two categories of argument are worth highlighting: those offered by Apple and claims made by others in Apple's defence.[1]

Apple's Arguments

The decision to ban competing browser engines is as old as iOS, but Apple has only attempted to explain itself recently and only when compelled:

Apple's lawyers <a href='https://twitter.com/slightlylate/status/1389647183457124353?s=20'>mangled a screen capture of the Financial Times (<abbr>FT</abbr>) web app to cover for a deficit of features in Safari and WebKit</a>, inadvertently setting the tone.
Apple's lawyers mangled a screen capture of the Financial Times (FT) web app to cover for a deficit of features in Safari and WebKit, inadvertently setting the tone.

Experts tend to treat Apple's arguments with disdain, but this skepticism is expressed in technical terms that can obscure deeper issues. Apple's response to the U.S. House Antitrust Subcommittee includes its fullest response and it provides a helpful, less-technical framing to discuss how browser engine choice relates to power over software distribution:

4. Does Apple restrict, in any way, the ability of competing web browsers to deploy their own web browsing engines when running on Apple's operating system? If yes, please describe any restrictions that Apple imposes and all the reasons for doing so. If no, please explain why not.

All iOS apps that browse the web are required to use "the appropriate WebKit framework and WebKit Javascript" pursuant to Section 2.5.6 of the App Store Review Guidelines <https://developer.apple.com/app-store/review/guidelines/#software-requirements>.

The purpose of this rule is to protect user privacy and security. Nefarious websites have analysed other web browser engines and found flaws that have not been disclosed, and exploit those flaws when a user goes to a particular website to silently violate user privacy or security. This presents an acute danger to users, considering the vast amount of private and sensitive data that is typically accessed on a mobile device.

By requiring apps to use WebKit, Apple can rapidly and accurately address exploits across our entire user base and most effectively secure their privacy and security. Also, allowing other web browser engines could put users at risk if developers abandon their apps or fail to address a security flaw quickly. By requiring use of WebKit, Apple can provide security updates to all our users quickly and accurately, no matter which browser they decide to download from the App Store.

WebKit is an open-source web engine that allows Apple to enable improvements contributed by third parties. Instead of having to supply an entirely separate browser engine (with the significant privacy and security issues this creates), third parties can contribute relevant changes to the WebKit project for incorporation into the WebKit engine.

Let's address these claims from most easily falsified to most contested.

Apple's Open Source Claim

The open source nature of WebKit is indisputable as a legal technicality. Anyone who cares to download and fork the code can do so. To the extent they are both skilled in browser construction and have the freedom to distribute modified binaries, WebKit's source code can serve as the basis for new engines. Anyone can fork WebKit and improve it, but they cannot ship enhancements to iOS users of their products.

Apple asserts this is fine becase WebKit's openness extends to open governance regarding feature additions. It must know this is misleading.

Presumably, Apple's counsel included this specious filigree to distract from the reality that Apple rarely accepts outside changes that push the state of the art forward. Here I speak from experience.

From 2008 to 2013, the Chromium project was based on WebKit, and a growing team of Chrome engineers began to contribute heavily "upstream." I helped lead the team that developed Web Components. Our difficulty in trying to develop these features in WebKit cannot be overstated. The eventual Blink fork was precipitated by an insurmountable difficulty in doing precisely what Apple suggested to Congress: contributing new features to WebKit.

The differing near-term objectives of browser teams often make potential additions contentious, and only competition has been shown to reliably drive consensus. Every team has more than enough to do, and time spent even considering new features can be seen as a distraction. Project owners fiercely guard the integrity of their codebases. Until and unless they become convinced of the utility of a feature, "no" is the usual response. If there is no competition to force the issue, it can also be the final answer.

Browser engines are large projects, necessitating governance through senior engineer code review. There tend to be very few experts empowered to do reviews in each area relative to number of engineers contributing code.

It's inevitable that managers will communicate disinterest in continuing collaboration if they find their most senior engineers spending a great deal of time reviewing code for features they have no interest in and will disable ("flag off") in their own products[2]. The pace of code reviews needed to finish a feature in this state can taper off or dry up completely, frustrating collaborators on both sides.

When browsers provide their own engines (an "integrated browser"), then it's possible to disagree in standards venues, return to one's corner, and deliver their best design to developers (responsibly, hopefully). Developers can then provide feedback and lobby other vendors to adopt (or re-design) them. This process can be messy and slow, but it never creates a political blockage for developing new capabilities for the web.

WebKit, by contrast, has in recent years gone so far as to publicly, pre-emptively "decline to implement" a veritable truckload features that some vendors feel are essential and would be willing to ship in their products.

The signal to parties who might contribute code for these features could scarcely be clearer: your patch is unlikely to be accepted into WebKit.

Suppose by some miracle a "controversial" feature is merged into WebKit. This is no gaurantee that iOS browsers will gain access to it. Features in this state have lingered behind flags for years, ensuring they are not available in either Safari or competing iOS browsers.

When priority disagreements inevitably arise, competing iOS browsers cannot reliably demonstrate a feature is safe or well received by web developers by contributing to WebKit. Potential sponsors of this work won't dare the expense of an attempt. Apple's opacity and history of challenging collaboration have done more than enough to discourage ambitious participants.

Other mechanisms for extending features of third party browsers may be possible (in some areas, with low fidelity; more on that below), but contributions to WebKit are not a viable path for a majority of potential additions.

It is shocking, but unsurprising, that Apple felt compelled to mislead Congress on these points. The facts are not in their favour, but few legislative staffers have enough context to see through debates about browser internals.

Apple's Security Argument

The most convincing argument in Apple's 2019 response to the U.S. House Judiciary Committee is rooted in security. Apple argues it bans other engines from iOS because:

Nefarious websites have analysed other web browser engines and found flaws that have not been disclosed, and exploit those flaws when a user goes to a particular website to silently violate user privacy or security.

Like all browsers, WebKit and Safari are under constant attack, including the construction of "zero day" attacks that Apple insinuates WebKit is immune to.

As a result of this threat landscape, responsible browser vendors work to put untrusted code (everything downloaded from the web) in "sandboxes"; restricted execution environments that are given fewer privileges than regular programs. Modern browsers layer protections on top of OS-level sandboxes, bolstering the default configuration with further limits on "renderer" processes.

Some engines go further, adopting safer systems languages and aggressive mitigations in their first lines of defence, in addition to more strictly isolating individual websites from each other. None of these protections were in place for iOS users in the most recent Solar Winds incident thanks to Apple's policy against engine choice, even for folks using browsers other than Safari.

The incredibly powerful devices Apple sells provide more than enough resources to raise such software defences, yet iOS users are years behind in recieving them and can't access them by switching browser. Apple's under-investment in security combine with its uniquely anti-competitive polices to ensure these gaps cannot be filled, no matter how contientious iOS users are about their digital hygiene.

Leading browsers are also adopting more robust processes for closing the "patch gap". Since all engines contain latent security bugs, precautions to insulate users from partial failure (e.g., sandboxing), and the velocity with which fixes reach end-user devices are paramount in determining the security posture of modern browsers. Apple's rather larger patch gap serves as an argument in favour of engine choice, all things equal. Cupertino's industry-lagging pace in adding additional layers of defence do not inspire confidence, either.

This brings us to the final link in the chain of structural security mitigations: the speed of delivering updates to end-users. Issues being fixed in the source code of an engine's project has no impact on its own; only when those fixes are rolled into new binaries and those binaries are delivered to user's devices do patches become fixes.

Apple's reply hints at the way its model for delivering fixes differs from all of its competitors:

[...] By requiring apps to use WebKit, Apple can rapidly and accurately address exploits across our entire user base and most effectively secure their privacy and security.

[...]

By requiring use of WebKit, Apple can provide security updates to all our users quickly and accurately, no matter which browser they decide to download from the App Store.

Aside from Chrome OS (and not for much longer), I'm aware of no modern browser that continues the medieval practice of requiring users download and install updates to their Operating System to apply browser patches. Lest Chrome OS's status quo seem a defence of iOS, know that the cost to end-users of these updates in terms of time and effort is night-and-day, thanks to near-instant, transparent updates on restart. If only my (significantly faster) iOS devices updated this transparently and quickly!

Why Is This Still A Thing?<br><br>Unlike browsers on every other major OS, updates to Safari are a painful affair, often requiring system reboots that take tens of minutes, providing multiple chances to re-take this photo.
Why Is This Still A Thing?

Unlike browsers on every other major OS, updates to Safari are a painful affair, often requiring system reboots that take tens of minutes, providing multiple chances to re-take this photo.

Lower-friction updates lead to faster patch application, keeping users safer, and Chrome OS is miles ahead of iOS in this regard.

All other browsers update "out of band" from the OS, including the WebView system component on Android. The result is, that for users with equivalent connectivity and disk space, out-of-band patches are installed on the devices significantly faster.

This makes intuitive sense: iOS update downloads are large and installing them can disrupt using a device for as much as a half hour. Users are understandably hesitant to incur these interruptions. Browser updates delivered out-of-band can be smaller and faster to apply, often without explicit user intervention. In many cases, simply restarting the browser delivers improved security updates.

Differences in uptake rates matter because it's only by updating a program on the user's devices that fixes can begin to protect users. iOS's high friction engine updates are a double strike against its security posture; albeit ones Cupertino has attempted to spin as a positive.

The philosophical differences underlying software update mechanisms run deep. All other projects have learned through long experience to treat operating systems as soft targets that must be defended by the browser, rather than as the ultimate source of user defence. To the extent that the OS is trustworthy, that's a "nice to have" property that can add additional protection, but it is not treated as a fundamental protection in and of itself. Browser engineers outside the WebKit and Safari projects are habituated to thinking of OS components as systems not designed for handling unsafe third-party input. Mediating layers are therefore built to insulate the OS from malicious sites.

Apple, by contrast, tends to rely on OS components directly, leaning on fixes within the OS to repair issues which other projects can patch at a higher level. Apple's insistence on treating the OS as a single, hermetic unit slows the pace of fixes reaching users, and results in reduced flexibility in delivering features to web developers. While iOS has decent baseline protections, being unable to layer on extra levels of security is a poor trade.

This arrangement is, however, maximally efficient for Apple in terms of staffing. But is HR cost efficiency for Apple the most important feature of a web engine? And shouldn't users be able to choose engines that are willing to spend more on engineering to prevent latent OS issues from becoming security problems? By maintaining a thin artifice of perfect security, Apple's iOS monoculture renders itself brittle in the face of new threats, leaving users without the benefits of the layered paranoia that the most secure browsers running on the best OSes can provide.[3] As we'll see in a moment, Apple's claim to keep users safe when using alternative browsers by fusing engine updates to the OS is, at best, contested.

Instead of raising the security floor, Apple has set a cap while breeding a monoculture that ensures all iOS browsers are vulnerable to identical attacks, no matter whose icon is on the home screen.

Preventable insecurity, iOS be thy name.

Update: In February 2022, Google's Project Zero posted a report on the metrics they track regarding product bug and patch rates. This included a section on browsers, which included the following — incredibly damning — chart:

To quote the post: 'WebKit is the outlier in this analysis, with the longest number of days to release a patch at 73 days.'
To quote the post: 'WebKit is the outlier in this analysis, with the longest number of days to release a patch at 73 days.'

Introducing Apple to developer.apple.com

Given Apple's response to Congress, it seems Cupertino is unfamiliar with the way iOS browsers other than Safari are constructed. Because it forbids integrated browsers, developers have no choice but to use Apple's own APIs to construct message-passing mechanisms between the privileged Browser Process and Renderer Processes sandboxed by Apple's WebKit framework.

A <a href='https://blogs.windows.com/msedgedev/2020/09/30/microsoft-edge-multi-process-architecture/'>diagram from the Edge Team's explanation of modern browser process relationships</a>.
A diagram from the Edge Team's explanation of modern browser process relationships.

These message-passing systems make it possible for WebKit-based browsers to add a limited subset of new features, even within the confines of Apple's WebKit binary. With this freedom comes the exact sort of liabilities that Apple insists it protects users from by fixing the full set of features firmly at the trailing edge.

To drive the point home: alternative browsers can include security issues every bit as severe as those Apple nominally guards against because of the side-channels provided by Apple's own WebKit framework. Any capability or data entrusted to the browser process can, in theory, be put at risk by these additional features.

More troublingly, these features are built in a way that is different to the mechanisms used by browser teams on every other platform. Any browser that delivers a feature to other platforms, then tries to bring it to iOS through script extensions, has doubled the security analysis and attack surface area.

None of this is theoretical; needing to re-develop features through a straw, using less-secure, more poorly tested and analyzed mechanisms, has led to serious security issues in alternative iOS browsers. Apple's policy, far from insulating responsible WebKit browsers from security issues, is a veritable bug farm for the projects wrenched between the impoverished feature set of Apple's WebKit and the features they can securely deliver with high fidelity on every other platform.

This is, of course, a serious problem for Apple's argument as to why it should be exclusively responsible for delivering updates to browser engines on iOS.

The Abandonware Problem

Apple cautions against poor browser vendor behaviour in its response, and it deserves special mention:

[...] Also, allowing other web browser engines could put users at risk if developers abandon their apps or fail to address a security flaw quickly.

Ignoring the extent to which WebKit represents precisely this scenario to vendors who would give favoured appendages to deliver stronger protections to their users on iOS, the justification for Apple's security ceiling has a (very weak) point: browsers are a serious business, and doing a poor job has bad consequences. One must wonder, of course, how Apple treats applications with persistent security issues that aren't browsers. Are they un-published from the App Store? And if so, isn't that a reasonable precedent here?

Whatever the precedent, Apple is absolutely correct that browsers shouldn't be distributed without commitments to maintenance, and that vendors who fail to keep the pace with security patches shouldn't be allowed to degrade the security posture of end-users. Fortunately, these are terms that nearly every reputable browser developer can easily agree to.

Indeed, reputable browser vendors would very likely be willing to sign up to terms that only allow use of the (currently proprietary and private) APIs that Apple uses to create sandboxed renderer processes for WebKit if their patch and CVE-fix rates matched some reasonable baseline. Apple's recently-added Browser Entitlement provides a perfect way to further contain the risk: only browsers that can be set as the system default could be allowed to bring alternative engines. Such a solution preserves Apple's floor on abandonware and embedded WebViews without capping the potential for improved experiences.

There are many options for managing the clearly-identifiable case of abandonware browsers, assuming Apple managers are genuinely interested solutions rather than sandbagging the pace of browser progress. Setting high standards has broad support.

Just-In-Time Pretexts

An argument that Apple hasn't made, but that others have derived from Apple's App Store Review Guidelines and instances of rejected app submissions, including Just-In-Time Compilers (JITs), has been that alternative browser engines are forbidden on iOS because they include JITs.

The history of this unstated policy is long, winding, and less enlightening than a description of the status quo:

An <a href='https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1FslzTx4b7sKZK4BR-DpO45JZNB1QZF9wuijK3OxBwr0/edit#gid=865365202'>analysis from Mozilla</a> shows that <abbr>JIT</abbr>s are a frequent source of browser bugs, and how some browsers are <a href='https://microsoftedge.github.io/edgevr/posts/Super-Duper-Secure-Mode/'>actively looking for ways to reduce the scope of their use</a>.
An analysis from Mozilla shows that JITs are a frequent source of browser bugs, and how some browsers are actively looking for ways to reduce the scope of their use.

In addition to WebKit's lack of important JavaScript engine features (e.g. WASM Threads) and protections (Site Isolation), Apple's policy makes little sense on its visible merits.

Obviously, the speed delivered by JITs is important in browser competition, but it's also a fallacy to assume competitors wouldn't prefer the freedom to improve the performance, compatibility, and capabilities of the rest of their engines because they might not be able to JIT JavaScript. Every modern browser can run without a JIT, and many would prefer that to being confined to Apple's trailing-edge, low-quality engine.

So what does the prohibition on JITs actually accomplish?

As far as I can tell, disallowing other engines and their JIT-ing JavaScript runtimes mints Apple (but not users) two key benefits:

Blessing Safari as the only app allowed to mint sandboxed subprocesses, while preventing other from doing so, is clearly unfair. This one-sided situation has persisted because the details of sandboxing and process creation have been obscured by a blanket prohibition on alternative engines. Should Apple choose (or be required) to allow higher-quality engines, this private API should surely be made public, even if it's restricted to browsers.

Similarly, skimping on RAM in thousand-dollar phones seems a weak reason to deny users access to faster, safer browsers. The Chromium project has a history of strengthening the default sandboxes provided by OSes (including Apple's), and would no doubt love the try its hand at improving Apple's security floor qua ceiling.

The relative problems with JITs — very much including Apple's — are, if anything, an argument for opening the field to vendors who will to put in the work Apple has not to protect users. If the net result is that Cupertino sells safer devices while accepting a slightly lower margin (or an even more eye-watering price) on its super-premium devices, what's the harm? And isn't that something the market should sort out?

High-modernism may mean never having to admit you're wrong, but it doesn't keep one from errors that functional markets would discipline. You do learn about them, but at the greatest of delays.

Policy Options

Apple may genuinely believe it is improving security by preventing other engines, not just padding its bottom line. For instance, beyond the abandonware problem, what of threats from "legitimate" browsers that abuse JIT priviledges? Or vendors that drag their heels in responding to security issues?

No OS vendor wants third parties exposing users to risks it feels helpless to mitigate. Removing browsers from user's devices is an existing option, but would be a drastic step that raises serious governance questions about the power Apple wields (and on whose behalf).

As middle-ground policy options go, Apple is far from helpless.

It has already created a bright line between browsers and other apps that embed WebViews, thanks to the Browser Entitlement, and could continue to require the latter use Apple's system-provided WebKit.

For browsers slow to fix security bugs, there also options short of dissalowing other engines and their JITs. Every engine on the market today also contains a non-JITing mode. Apple could require that vendors submit both JITful and JITless builds for each version they wish to publish and could, as a matter of policy and with warning, update user devices with non-JITing versions of these browsers should users be opened to widespread attack through vendor negligence.

In the process of opening up the necessary private APIs to build truly competitive browsers, Apple can set design quality standards. For example, if Apple's engine uses a now-private mechanism to ensure that code pages are not both writeable and executable, it could require other engines adopt the same techniques. Apple could further compel vendors to aggressively adopt protections from new hardware capabilities (e.g. Control Flow Integrity (pdf)) as it releases them.

Lastly, Apple can mandate all code loaded into sandboxed renderer processes be published as open source, along with build configurations, so that Apple can verify the supply chain integrity of browsers granted these capabilities.

Apple can maintain protections for users in the face of competition. Hiding behind security concerns to deny its users access to better, safer, faster browsers is indefensible.

Diversity Perversity

A final argument made by others, (but not by Apple who surely knows better), is that:

This is a slap-dash line of reasoning along several axes.

First, it fails to account for the different sorts of diversity that are possible within the browser ecosystem. Over the years, developers have suffered mightily under the thumb of entirely unwanted engine diversity in the form of trailing-edge browsers; most notably Internet Explorer 6.

The point of diversity and competition is to propel the leading edge forward by allowing multiple teams to explore alternative approaches to common problems. Competition at the frontier enables the market and competitive spirits to push innovation forward. What isn't beneficial is unused diversity potential. That is, browsers occupying market share but failing to meaningfully advance the state of the art.

The solution to this sort of deadweight diversity has been market pressure. Should a browser fall far enough behind, and for long enough, developers will begin to suggest (and eventually require) users to adopt more modern options to access their services at the highest fidelity.

This is a beneficial market mechanism (despite its unseemly aspects) because it creates pressure on browsers to keep pace with user and developer needs. The threat of developers encouraging users to "vote with their feet" also helps ensure that no party can set a hard cap on the web's capabilities over time. This is essential to ensure that oligopolists cannot weaponise a feature gap to tax all software.

Taxation of software occurs through re-privatisation of low-level, standards-based features and APIs. By restricting use of previously-free features (e.g. Bluetooth, USB, Serial, MIDI, and HID) to proprietary frameworks and distribution channels, a successful would-be monopolist can extract outsized rents on any application that requires even one of these features. Impoverishing the commons through delay and obstruction is, over time, indistinguishable from active demolition.

Apple's playbook is in line with this diagnosis, preserving the commons as a historical curiosity at best. Having blockaded every road to upgrading the web, Apple have made it impossible for an open platform to keep pace with Apple's own modern-but-proprietary options. The game's simple once pointed out, but hard to see at first because it depends on consistent inaction.

This sort deadweight loss is hard to spot over short time horizons. Disallowing competitive engines may have been accidental at introduction of iOS, but its value to Apple now cannot be overstated. After all, it's hard to extract ruinous taxes on a restive population with straightforward emigration options. No wonder Cupertino continues to put on new showings of the "web apps are a credible alternative on iOS!" pantomime.

In this understanding, the web helps maintain a fair market for software services. Web standards and open source web engines combine to create an interoperable commons across closed operating systems. This commons allows services to be built without taxation; but only to the extent it's capable enough to meet user and developer needs over time.

Continuous integration of previouly-proprietary features into the commons is the mechanism by which progress is delivered. Push notifications may have been shiny in 2011 but, a decade later, there's no reason to think that a developer should pay an ongoing tax for a feature that is offered by every major OS and device. The same goes for access to a phone's menagerie of sensors, or more efficient codecs.

The sorts of diversity we have come to value in the web ecosystem exist exclusively at the leading edge.

Intense disputes about the best ways to standardise a use-case or feature are a strong sign of a healthy dynamic. It's rancid, however, when a single vendor can prevent progress across a wide swathe of domains that are critical to delivering better experiences, and suffer no market consequence.

Apple has cut the fuel lines of progress by requiring use of WebKit in every iOS browser; choice without competition, distinction without difference.

Yet this sort of participation-prize diversity is exactly what purported defenders of Apple's policies would have us believe is healthy for the web.

It's a curious argument.

In the first instance, it admits that Apple's engine is deeply sub-par, failing to achieve the level of quality that even Mozilla's investments have produced. Having given up the core claim of product superiority, this failure is rhetorically pivoted into a defense of the ongoing failure to compete: because Apple's product is bad, it shouldn't be forced to allow competition, as people might then choose better products.[5]

Apple is not lacking funds or talent to build a competitive product, it simply chooses not to. Apple's 2+ trillion dollar market cap is paired with nearly $200 billion in cash on hand. One could produce a competitive browser for the spare change in Cupertino's Eames lounges.

Claims that foot-dragging must be protected because otherwise capable engines might win share is not much of a defence. Excusing poor performance is to suggest that Apple does not possess the talent, skill, and resources to ever construct a competitive engine. I, at least, think better of Apple's engineering acumen than these nominal defenders.

Would WebKit really dissapear if Apple were to allow other engines onto iOS? We have a natural experiment in Safari for macOS. It continues to enjoy a high share of that browser market despite stiff and competition from browsers that include higher-quality engines. Why are Apple's defenders so certain that this won't be the result for iOS?

And what is the worst-case scenario, exactly?

That Safari loses share such that Apple must respond by funding the WebKit team adequately? That the Safari team feels compelled to switch to another open source rendering engine (e.g. Gecko or Blink), preserving their ability to fork down the road, just as they did with KHTML, and as the Blink project did with WebKit?

None of these are close ended scenarios, nor must they result in a reduction in constructive, leading edge diversity. Edge, Brave, Opera, and Samsung Internet consistently innovate on privacy and other features without creating undue drag on core developer interests. Should the Chromium project become an unwelcome host for this sort of work, all of these organisations can credibly consider a fork, adding another new branch to the lineage of browser engines.


It's not a foregone conclusion the world's most valuable tech firm must produce the lowest-quality browser and externalise huge costs onto developers and users. Developer's might even take Apple's side if coercion about engine choice weren't paired with failure to keep pace on even basic features.

The point of diversity at the leading edge is progress through competition. The point of diversity amid laggards is the freedom to replace them — that's the market at work.

End Notes

Nobody wishes it had come to this.

Apple's polices against browser choice were, at some point, relatively well grounded in the low resource limits of early smartphones. But those days are long gone. Sadly, the legacy of a closed choice, back when WebKit was still a leader in many areas, is an industry-wide hangover. We accepted a bad deal because the situation seemed convivial, and ignored those who warned it was a portent of a more closed, more extractive future for software.

Only if we had listened.

Thanks to Chris Palmer and Eric Lawrence for their thoughtful comments on drafts of this post. Thanks also to Frances for putting up with me writing this post on holiday.


  1. As we shall see, it would be better for Apple if their "supporters" would stop inventing straw man arguments as they tend to undermine, rather than bolster, Cupertino's side. ↩︎

  2. Browser engines all have a form of selective exclusion of code that is technically available within the codebase but, for one reason or another, is disabled in a particular environment. These switches are known variously as "flags," "command line switches," or "runtime-enabled features."

    New features that are not ready for prime time may be developed for months "behind a flag" and only selectively enabled for small populations of developers or users before being made available to all by default. Many mechanisms have existed for controlling the availability of features guarded by flags. Still, the key thing to know is that not all code in a browser engine's source repository represents features that web developers can use. Only the set that is flagged on by default can affect the programmable surface that web developers experience.

    The ability of the eventual producer of a binary to enable some flags but not others means that even if an open source project does agree to include code for a feature, restrictions on engine binaries can preclude an alternative browser's ability to provide even some features which are part of the code the system binary could include.

    Flags, and Apple's policies towards them over the years, are enough of a reason to reject Apple's feint towards open source as an outlet for unmet web developer needs on iOS. ↩︎

  3. It's perverse that the wealthy users Apple sells its powerful devices to — the very folks who can most easily dedicate the extra CPU and RAM necessary to enable multiple layers of protection — are prevented from doing so by Apple's policies that are, ostensibly, designed to improve security. ↩︎

  4. JIT and sandbox creation are technically separate concerns (and could be managed by policy independently), but insofar as folks impute a reason to Apple for allowing its engine to use this technique, sandboxing is often offered as a reason. ↩︎

  5. A very strange sub-species of the "Apple shouldn't be made to allow competition becuse it's product is bad" argument suggests that Google might ask users to install Chrome if engine choice becomes possible. This reads to me like a case of un-updated priors. Recall that until late 2020, it wasn't possible for any browser to be the iOS default but Safari.

    It has only been in the past year that iOS has allowed browser competition at all, but already, this regulatory-scrutiny-derived changed has led to more aggressive advertising for other browser prodcuts, even though they're still forced to use Apple's shoddy engine.

    This is largely because of the way browsers monetise. Once a browser is your default, it is more likely that you will perform searches through it, which gets the browser maker paid. The new status quo means that the profit maximising reason to suggest that users switch is already in place. What's left is the residual of consistently broken and missing features that raise costs for all developers due to Apple's neglect.

    In other words, the bad thing that these folks assume will happen has already happened, and all that's left to defend is the indefensible. ↩︎

The Core Web Platform Loop

Joining a new team has surfaced just how much I've relied on a few lenses to explain the incredible opportunities and challenges of platform work. This post is the second in an emergent series towards a broader model for organisational and manager maturity in platform work, the first being last year's Platform Adjacency Theory. That article sets out a temporal model that focuses on trust in platforms. That trust has a few dimensions:

These traits are primarily developer-facing for a simple reason: while the products that bring platforms to market have features and benefits, the real draw comes from safely facilitating trade on a scale the platform vendor can't possibly bootstrap on their own.

Search engines, for example, can't afford to fund producing even a tiny sliver of the content they index. As platforms, they have to facilitate interactions between consumers and producers outside their walls — and continue to do so on reasonably non-extractive terms.

Thinking about OSes and browsers gives us the same essential flavour: to make a larger market for the underlying product (some OS, browsers in general), the platform facilitates a vast range of apps and services by maximising developer reach from a single codebase at a low incremental cost. Those services and apps convince users to obtain the underlying products. This is the core loop at the heart of software platforms:

The Web Platform's core loop, like most other platforms, delivers value through developers and therefore operates on timescales that are not legible to traditional product management processes.
The Web Platform's core loop, like most other platforms, delivers value through developers and therefore operates on timescales that are not legible to traditional product management processes.

Cycles around the loop take time, and the momentum added or lost in one turn of the loop creates or destroys opportunity for the whole ecosystem at each successive step. Ecosystems are complex systems and grow and shrink through multi-party interplay.

Making progress through intertemporal effects is maddening to product-focused managers who are used to direct build ⇒ launch ⇒ iterate cycles. They treat ecosystems as static and immutable because, on the timescales they operate, that is apparently true. The lens of Pace Layering reveals the disconnect:

Stewart Brand's Pace Layering model helps explain the role of platform work vs. product development.
Stewart Brand's Pace Layering model helps explain the role of platform work vs. product development.

Products that include platforms iterate their product features on the commerce or fashion timescale, while platform work is the slower, higher-leverage movement of infrastructure and governance. Features added in a release for end-users have impact in the short run, while features added for developers may add cumulative momentum to the flywheel many releases later as developers pick up the new features and build new types of apps that, in turn, attract new users.

This creates a predictable bias in managers towards product-only work. Iterating on features around an ecosystem becomes favoured, even when changing the game (rather than learning to play it incrementally better) would best serve their interests. In extreme versions, product-only work leads to strip-mining ecosystems for short-term product advantage, undermining long-term prospects. Late-stage capitalism loves this sort of play.

The second common bias is viewing ecosystems that can't be fully mediated as somebody else's problem or as immovable. Collective action problems in open ecosystem management are abundant. Managers without much experience or comfort in complex spaces tend to lean on learned helplessness about platform evolution. "Standards are slow" and "we need to meet developers where they are" are the reasonable-sounding refrains of folks who misunderstand their jobs as platform maintainers to be about opportunities one can unlock in a single annual OKR cycle. The upside for organisations willing to be patient and intentional is that nearly all your competitors will mess this up.

Failure to manage platform work at the appropriate time-scale is so ingrained that savvy platform managers can telegraph their strategies, safe in the knowledge they'll look like mad people.

One might as well be playing cricket in an American park; the actions will look familiar to passers-by, but the long game will remain opaque. They won't be looking hard enough, long enough to discern how to play — let alone win.


  1. Successful platforms can extract unreasonably high taxes in many ways, but they all feature the same mechanism: using a developer's investments in one moment to extract higher rents later. A few examples:

    • IP licensing fees that escalate, either over time or with scale.
    • Platform controls put in place for safety or other benefits re-purposed for rent extraction (e.g. payment system taxes, pay-for-ranking in directories, etc.).
    • Use of leverage to prevent suppliers from facilitating platform competitors in equal terms.

    Platforms are also in competition over these taxes. One of the web's best properties is that, through a complex arrangement of open IP licensing and broad distribution, it exerts significantly lower taxes on developers in a structural way (ceteris peribus). ↩︎

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